China announces Chang’e-3 mission “complete success”

 

Scientists prepare for the mutual-photograph process at the Beijing Aerospace Control

Center in Beijing on December 15, 2013.    Photo by Wang Jianmin

 

Scientists prepare for the mutual-photograph process at the Beijing Aerospace Control

Center in Beijing on December 15, 2013.    Photos by Wang Jianmin

 

Screen shows the photo of the Chang’e-3 moon lander taken by the camera on the Yutu

moon rover during the mutual-photograph process, at the Beijing Aerospace Control

Center in Beijing on December 15, 2013.   Photo by Ding Lin

 

Screen shows the photo of the Yutu moon rover taken by the camera on the Chang’e-3 moon

lander during the mutual-photograph process, at the Beijing Aerospace Control Center

in Beijing on December 15, 2013.  The moon rover and the moon lander took photos of each

other Sunday night, marking the complete success of the Chang’e-3 lunar probe mission.  

Photo by Wang Jianmin

 

 

 

 


2013-12-16 00:11:44

 

China’s moon rover, lander

photograph each other  

 

By Tian Ye, Li Baojie and Ren Ke

 

 

China’s first moon rover and lander took photos of each other on the moon’s

surface on Sunday night of December 15.   Photos – Xinhua

 

 

China’s first moon rover and lander took photos of each other on the moon’s surface on Sunday night of December 15, a move that marks a complete success of the country’s Chang’e-3 lunar probe mission.

Ma Xingrui, chief commander of China’s lunar program, announced that Chang’e-3 mission was a “complete success”, after the two successfully took pictures for each other.

The one-minute photographing came a day after the country completed its first lunar soft landing, the world’s first of the kind in nearly four decades. The last soft landing was carried out by the Soviet Union in 1976.

At about 11:42 p.m. Beijing Time, the six-wheeled Yutu, or Jade Rabbit, moved to a spot about 9 meters north to the lander and the photographing began.

The color images, live transmitted via a deep space network designed by China, showed the Chinese national flag on Yutu. It marked the first time that the five-star red flag had pictures taken in an extraterrestrial body.

As a photo appeared on a big monitoring screen at the Beijing Aerospace Control Center (BACC), senior state leaders and dozens of center staff clapped hands in cheers.

Yutu will survey the moon’s geological structure and surface substances and look for natural resources for three months, while the lander will conduct in-situ exploration at the landing site for one year.

The 140-kg rover separated from the lander and touched the lunar surface at 4:35 a.m. Sunday, several hours after Chang’e-3 lunar probe soft-landed on the moon’s surface at 9:11 p.m. on Saturday.

Chang’e-3 landed on the moon’s Sinus Iridum, or the Bay of Rainbows, making China the third country in the world to carry out such a rover mission after the United States and Soviet Union.

In ancient Chinese mythology, Yutu was the white pet rabbit of the lunar goddess Chang’e. The name for the rover was selected following an online poll that collected several million votes from people around the world.

The rover, 1.5 meters long with its two wings folded, 1 m in width and 1.1 m in height, is a highly efficient robot controlled by the command center from the earth. It will face challenges including temperature differences of more than 300 degrees Celsius on the moon.

Chang’e-3 is part of the second phase of China’s lunar program, which includes orbiting, landing and returning to the Earth. It follows the success of the Chang’e-1 and Chang’e-2 missions in 2007 and 2010.

 

 

 

Chinese President Xi Jinping and Chinese Premier Li Keqiang shake hands with scientists to

congratulate the complete success of Chang’e-3 mission at the Beijing Aerospace Control

Center in Beijing on December 15, 2013.    Photo by Ding Lin

 

 

 

 

2013-12-16 01:39: 44

 

Xi Jinping ongratulates 

Chang’e-3 mission’s

complete success

 

By Ren Ke, Li Baojie and Tian Ye

 

Chinese President Xi Jinping on Sunday night  of December 15 congratulated the success of Chang’e-3 lunar probe that completed the country’s first softlanding on lunar surface.

The moon rover Yutu, or Jade Rabbit, and the lander took pictures of each other on Sunday night, a move that marked the complete success of Chang’e 3 mission. Xi, along with Premier Li Keqiang and other senior officials, watched the live broadcast of the move at Beijing Aerospace Control Center (BACC).

After the photographing, Ma Xingrui, chief commander of China’s lunar program, announced the Chang’e-3 mission was a “complete success”.

In a congratulatory message sent by the Communist Party of China Central Commitee, the State Council and the Central Military Commission, the success of the Chang’e 3 mission was hailed as a “milestone” in the development of China’s space programs, a “new glory” of the Chinese people in their exploration of the frontiers of science and technology and “outstanding contribution” of the Chinese nation in the mankind’s peaceful use of the space.

The message, read by Vice Premier Ma Kai, attributed the success of the mission to the staunch leadership of the Communist Party of China Central Committee with Xi Jinping as the general secretary and the implementation of the country’s innovation-driven development model on the front of space programs.

Chang’e 3 mission marked the full completion of the second phase of China’s lunar program, which includes orbiting, landing and returning to the Earth, reads the message.

After the mission, China’s lunar program will enter a new stage of unmanned automatic sampling and return, which will be more difficult with unprecedented challenges.

The Chang’e-3 mission is one of the most complicated and difficult tasks in China’s space program, the message said, adding that exploring the universe and seeking peaceful use of space are dreams of the Chinese nation for thousands of years.

Comprising a lander and moon rover Yutu, or Jade Rabbit, Chang’e-3 lunar probe soft-landed on moon at 9:11 p.m. Saturday Beijing Time. Yutu later separated from the lander and rolled to moon surface earlier Sunday.

The Chang’e 3 mission makes China the third country after the Soviet Union and the United States to soft land a spacecraft on lunar soil.

 

 

 

 

 

2013-12-16 01:45: 51

 

 

China announces Chang’e-3

mission “complete success”

 

By Li Baojie, Tian Ye, Ren Ke, Bai Ruixue, Zhao Wei and Li Xuanliang

 

China hailed its Chang’e-3 lunar probe mission “a complete success” Sunday night, after its first moon rover Yutu, or Jade Rabbit, and lander took photos of each other on lunar surface.

The one-minute photographing, a day after the country finished its first lunar soft landing, showed that both the lander and moon rover functioned well and marked the completion of soft landing, in-situ and patrol explorations, said Pei Zhaoyu, spokesman for China’s lunar probe program.

Ma Xingrui, chief commander of the lunar program, declared the success of Chang’e-3 mission at the Beijing Aerospace Control Center (BACC), where Chinese President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang were present.

In a congratulatory message sent by the Communist Party of China Central Committee, the State Council, and the Central Military Commission, the success of Chang’e-3 mission was hailed as a “milestone” in the development of China’s space programs, a “new glory” of the Chinese people in their exploration of the frontiers of science and technology and “outstanding contribution” of the Chinese nation in the mankind’s peaceful use of the space.

The photographing started at about 11:42 p.m. Beijing Time, when the six-wheeled Yutu moved to a spot about 9 meters north to the lander.

The color images, live transmitted via a deep space network designed by China, showed the Chinese national flag on Yutu. It marked the first time that the five-star red flag had pictures taken in an extraterrestrial body.

After the photographing, the rover and lander embarked on their own scientific explorations. But in the coming days, the two will still have chances of taking photos of each other from different angles while the rover circled the lander.

Yutu will survey the moon’s geological structure and surface substances and look for natural resources for three months at a speed of 200 meters per hour, while the lander will conduct in-situ exploration at the landing site for one year.

The 140-kg rover separated from the lander and touched the lunar surface at 4:35 a.m. Sunday, several hours after Chang’e-3 lunar probe soft-landed on the moon’s surface at 9:11 p.m. on Saturday.

Chang’e-3 landed on the moon’s Sinus Iridum, or the Bay of Rainbows, making China the third country in the world to carry out such a rover mission after the United States and Soviet Union.

This is the world’s first soft-landing of a probe on the moon in nearly four decades. The last such soft-landing was carried out by the Soviet Union in 1976.

In ancient Chinese mythology, Yutu was the white pet rabbit of the lunar goddess Chang’e. The name for the rover was selected following an online poll that collected several million votes from people around the world.

The rover, 1.5 meters long with its two wings folded, 1 m in width and 1.1 m in height, is a highly efficient robot controlled by the command center from the earth. It will face challenges including temperature differences of more than 300 degrees Celsius on the moon.

Following the success of the Chang’e-1 and Chang’e-2, respectively launched in 2007 and 2010, the Chang’e-3 lunar probe mission marks the full completion of the second phase of China’s lunar program, which includes orbiting, landing and returning to the Earth.

After Chang’e-3, China’s lunar program will enter a new stage of unmanned automatic sampling and return.

Wu Weiren, the lunar program’s chief designer, said China is likely to bring samples from the moon back to the Earth on an unmanned craft before 2020, paving the way for a manned mission.

 

 

 

 

 

 

NEW POST    updated on December 16, 2013

 

 

Scientific equipment

aboard Chang’e-3

starts working

 

By Li Huizi

 

Five of the eight pieces of scientific equipment aboard Chang’e-3 lunar probe have started to observe space, the Earth and the Moon, a Chinese scientist said on Monday of December 16.

They have entered working mode and telescopes and cameras have produced clear images, Zou Yongliao, a scientist with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said at a press conference.

Comprising a lander and rover Yutu, (Jade Rabbit) Chang’e-3 soft-landed on the Moon on Saturday evening. Yutu later separated from the lander and rolled to moon surface earlier Sunday. In ancient Chinese mythology, Yutu was the white pet rabbit of the lunar goddess Chang’e.

The mission makes China the third country after the Soviet Union and the United States to soft land a spacecraft on lunar soil.

The lander and Yutu each carries four scientific instruments to conduct Moon-based observation, Zou said, adding the lander’s cameras took photos of the Moon during its descent.

Yutu and the lander took photos of each other Sunday night through the lander’s landform camera and Yutu’s panoramic camera. The color images, transmitted live, showed the Chinese national flag on Yutu.

Yutu’s radar started working Sunday night to test the structure of lunar soil, according to Zou.

“Chang’e-3 will study the Moon’s landforms, geological structure, substance, and potentially exploitable resources,” he said, adding, “the lander will observe the Earth’s plasmasphere through telescopes.”

Scientists from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan have participated in the Chang’e missions, and some of the data can be shared by scientists and tech savvy enthusiasts all over the world, Zou added.

Chang’e-3 is part of the second phase of China’s lunar program, which includes orbiting, landing and returning to the Earth. It follows the success of the Chang’e-1 and Chang’e-2 missions in 2007 and 2010.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese scientist: 

Deep space 

monitoring station

abroad imperative

 

 

By Guo Likun, Yu Xiaojie and Luo Sha

 

China needs to build a deep space monitoring station abroad because the existing network is not capable of tracking deep space detectors round the clock, a leading scientist said on Monday of December 16.

Despite having two monitoring stations in the country, there are still eight to ten hours a day during which China cannot track its deep space detectors, said Zhou Jianliang, chief engineer of the Beijing Aerospace Control Center, at a press conference.

“It is imperative to build a deep space monitoring station abroad in order to make up for blind measurements and realize round-the-clock monitoring for future deep space missions,” Zhou said.

The stations in Kashgar, in northwest China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and Jiamusi, in northeast China’s Heilongjiang Province, were put into operation in 2012.

The two stations helped control lunar probe Chang’e 2, which was launched on Oct. 1, 2010, to fly by Toutatis, an asteroid about seven million km away from Earth on Dec. 13, 2012.

Chang’e 2, which is about 65 million km from Earth, is still being monitored by the two stations, according to Zhou.

 

 

 

 

 

China explores

moon for science,

technology

advancement

 

 

By Fu Shuangqi and Yu Xiaojie

 

China expects to gain a scientific understanding of the moon and develop its space technologies through its lunar program, a spokesman said in Beijing on Monday of December 16.

China has carried out its lunar exploration program as current financial and technical conditions have allowed, said Wu Zhijian, spokesman with the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense, during a press conference.

China’s Chang’e-3 lunar probe succeeded in soft landing on the moon Saturday evening. The country’s first moon rover, which was on board the probe, separated from the lander early on Sunday. The two photographed each other on the moon’s surface Sunday night.

Under the program, China has made breakthroughs in key technologies, which have enabled the lunar probe to land on the moon and deploy a moon rover, Wu said.

“We have also laid a solid foundation for future exploration of deep space,” he said.

China’s lunar program has brought technological progress in the development of carrier rockets, deep space communication, remote control, artificial intelligence, robotics, new materials and new energy, he said.

In response to questions about working with other countries in this field, Wu said China is always positive about international cooperation in lunar exploration.

“We have had very good cooperation with other countries and international organizations in previous missions,” he said.

Data collected through the Chang’e-1 and Chang’e-2 probes are open to scientists across the world, according to Wu.

China shared information collected by Chang’e-1 with the European Space Agency (ESA), and an ESA aerospace control center and three of its telecommand telemetry control stations took part in the Chang’e-3 mission, he said.

“In the next stage of the lunar program, there will be more international cooperation,” he said.

“Despite current progress, China still lags behind space giants like the United States and Russia in many aspects,” he said. “We need to work harder and move faster.”

 

 

 

 

 

China plans to launch

Chang’e-5 in 2017

 

By Guo Likun, Fu Shuangqi, Yu Xiaojie and Luo Sha

 

China plans to launch lunar probe Chang’e-5 in 2017, according to the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense.

“The development of Chang’e-5 is proceeding smoothly,” said the administration’s spokesman Wu Zhijian at a press conference on Monday of December 16.

The just-concluded Chang’e-3 mission marked completion of the second phase of the country’s lunar program, which includes orbiting, landing and returning to Earth.

The lunar program will enter the next stage of unmanned sampling and returning, which will include Chang’e-5 and 6 missions, according to Wu.

“The program’s third phase will be more difficult because many breakthroughs must be made in key technologies such as moon surface takeoff, sampling encapsulation, rendezvous and docking in lunar orbit, and high-speed Earth reentry, which are all new to China,” Wu said.

As the backup probe of Chang’e-3, Chang’e-4 will be adapted to verify technologies for Chang’e-5, according to Wu.

China’s Chang’e-1 and Chang’e-2 missions were in 2007 and 2010.

Launched on October 1, 2010, Chang’e-2 is about 65 million km from Earth and is China’s first man-made asteroid. It is heading for deep space.

“The completion of the third phase will not mean an end of China’s lunar probe program,” Wu said. “It should be a new starting point.”

Wu, however, said follow-up plans for lunar exploration after the third phase is completed are still being studied.

As for deep space exploration, Wu said, “Experts have reached some consensuses and scientists are studying and drawing up integrated plans.”

Chang’e-3 lunar probe succeeded in soft landing on the moon Saturday evening. The country’s first moon rover, which was on board the probe, separated from the lander early on Sunday. The two photographed each other on the moon’s surface Sunday night.

Under the program, China has made breakthroughs in key technologies, which have enabled the lunar probe to land on the moon and deploy a moon rover, Wu said.

“We have also laid a solid foundation for future exploration of deep space,” he said.

In response to questions about working with other countries in this field, Wu said China is always positive about international cooperation in lunar exploration.

“We have had very good cooperation with other countries and international organizations in previous missions,” he said.

Data collected through the Chang’e-1 and Chang’e-2 probes are open to scientists across the world, according to Wu.

China shared information collected by Chang’e-1 with the European Space Agency (ESA), and an ESA aerospace control center and three of its telecommand telemetry control stations took part in the Chang’e-3 mission, he said.

“In the next stage of the lunar program, there will be more international cooperation,” he said.

“Despite current progress, China still lags behind space giants like the United States and Russia in many aspects,” he said. “We need to work harder and move faster.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NEW POST   updated on December 18, 2013

 

Space program

enlightens,

benefits people

 

By Guo Likun

As an important component of mankind’s activities to explore, China’s space program, including its on-going lunar probe missions, looks to inspire exploration of the unknown universe and benefit humanity.

Comprising a lander and China’s first moon rover Yutu, or Jade Rabbit, Chang’e-3 lunar probe soft-landed on the moon on Saturday night and released Yutu hours later to the moon’s surface. The two photographed each other Sunday night.

Behind each space mission are hundreds even thousands of technological innovations which could benefit related industries and lead to industrial upgrading.

China’s lunar probe program brought about breakthroughs in key technologies in the development of carrier rockets, deep space communication, remote control, artificial intelligence, robotics, new materials and new energy.

Many of them can be applied in civilian sectors and play a major role in scientific, national and social development, which could nurture high-tech talent, inspire emerging disciplines and benefit people in the long term.

The Chang’e-3 mission marked completion of the second phase of China’s lunar program, which consists of orbiting, landing and returning to Earth.

In the next phase, China plans to launch lunar probe Chang’e-5 in 2017. Chang’e-5 is expected to collect 2 kg of lunar soil samples by drilling two meters down into the moon’s surface.

The mission has also laid a solid foundation for future deep space exploration.

The lunar program’s chief designer Wu Weiren said China has been capable of exploring Mars since the success of the first two Chang’e missions in 2007 and 2010, though the country has not announced any intention to fly a mission to Mars.

China has been striving to increase the probability of mission success while minimizing time and cost.

Space exploration has been a risky undertaking. Only about 40 percent of the 118 lunar probe attempts by the United States and the Soviet Union during the space race in the 1960s and 1970s, had been successful.

China has carried out its lunar exploration program as much as financial and technical conditions have allowed.

Compared with the 2 to 2.5 percent of GDP input by the U.S. on its lunar exploration program at that time, China’s input – only a few ten-thousandth of the country’s GDP – is not very much, according to chief designer Wu Weiren.

China’s lunar probe program is an open program.

China has cooperated with other countries and international organizations in previous missions.

Data collected through the Chang’e-1 and Chang’e-2 probes are open to scientists across the world.

China shared information collected by Chang’e-1 with the European Space Agency. An agency aerospace control center and three of its telecommand telemetry control stations took part in the Chang’e-3 mission.

More international cooperation is expected in the next stage of the lunar program.

The completion of the third phase will not mean an end to China’s lunar probe program, it should instead be a new starting point.

China has yet to announce its space plans beyond the third phase of the lunar probe. The success of the Chang’e-3 mission, however, has expanded its horizon in space travel and opened the door for future deep space exploration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

NEW POST   updated on December 20, 2013

 

 

China’s Yutu “naps”, 

awakens and explores

 

By Liu Lu and Yu Xiaojie

 

China’s moon rover, Yutu (Jade Rabbit), continued exploring after a “nap”, according to the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence on Friday of Dcember 20.

At about 8:00 p.m. Beijing Time, the six-wheeled rover started moving again after shutting down its subsystems on December 16.

Yutu has had to deal with direct solar radiation raising the temperature to over 100 degrees centigrade on his sunny side, while his shaded side simultaneously fell below zero.

“The break had been planned to last until December 23, but the scientists decided to restart Yutu now for more research time, based on the recent observations and telemetry parameters,” said Pei Zhaoyu, spokesman for the lunar program.

Yutu separated from the lander on December 15, several hours after Chang’e-3 soft-landed on December 14. It moved to a spot about 9 meters to the north where Yutu and the lander took photos of each other.

Yutu will survey the moon’s geological structure and surface substances and look for natural resources for three months, while the lander will conduct in-situ exploration at the landing site for one year.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NEW POST   updated on December 21, 2013

 

China’s moon rover

works stably 

 

By Yang Hui, Tian Zhaoyun and Xie Bo

 

China’s moon rover, Yutu (Jade Rabbit), worked in stable condition following its restart after a “nap” on Friday night of December 20, according to the Beijing Aerospace Control Center (BACC).

The six-wheeled rover started moving again after shutting down its subsystems on December 16, and has traveled about 21 meters as of 8:05 p.m. Beijing Time on Saturday, according to the BACC.

Xinhua reporters observed at the center that the rover is moving slowly and tracks of the wheels can be seen clearly at around 5:00 p.m..

Real-time telemetry updates showed that all subsystems of the rover and lander are working stably, and the rover has sent more than 500 instructions to the lander within the 24 hours after the “nap”.

Yutu separated from the lander on December 15, several hours after Chang’e-3 soft-landed on December 14. It moved to a spot about 9 meters to the north where Yutu and the lander took photos of each other.

Yutu will survey the moon’s geological structure and surface substances and look for natural resources for three months, while the lander will conduct in-situ exploration at the landing site for one year.

 

 

 

 

 

NEW POST   updated on December 22, 2013

 

China’s moon rover

continues lunar survey

after photographing lander

 

By Tian Ye

 

China’s first moon rover, Yutu, or Jade Rabbit, continued patrol explorations on the lunar surface after taking photos of the lander for the fifth and final time early on Sunday of December 22.

According to the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (SASTIND), images transmitted to the ground after the latest photos were captured showed for the first time the national flags on both Yutu and the lander.

Pictures of the lander’s five-star red flag could not be taken during previous photo-shooting operations because the flag’s position was not facing the camera.

The latest photo operations will be the last in which the lander and rover take photos of each other.

Yutu separated from the lander on Dec. 15, several hours after China’s lunar probe Chang’e-3 soft-landed on the moon on Dec. 14.

The moon rover and the lander took photos of each other for the first time on the night of December 15. Color images transmitted live during the first photo operation only showed the Chinese national flag on Yutu.

The rover began to circle the lander after the two took their first photos of each other, with a four-day break that lasted from December 16 to December 20, during which the six-wheeled rover shut down its subsystems, according to SASTIND.

Yutu will survey the moon’s geological structure and surface substances and look for natural resources for three months, while the lander will conduct in situ exploration at the landing site for one year.

The Chang’e-3 mission makes China the third country, after the Soviet Union and the United States, to soft-land a spacecraft on lunar soil.

The mission also marks the full completion of the second phase of China’s lunar program, which includes orbiting, landing and returning to Earth.

After the mission, China’s lunar program will enter a new stage of unmanned automatic sampling and return, which will include Chang’e-5 and 6 missions.

China plans to launch lunar probe Chang’e-5 in 2017, according to SASTIND.

 

 

 

 

 

NEW POST   updated on December 23, 2013

 

China’s moon rover

flexes muscles

 

By Yang Hui, Tian Zhaoyun and Zhang Xiaoqi

 

China’s moon rover, Yutu (Jade Rabbit), completed an arm flexing assessment early on Monday of December 23, a key test before beginning other work on the surface, according to the Beijing Aerospace Control Center.

The trial checked the rover is in the best condition to endure extreme temperatures of minus 180 degrees Celsius in the first moonlight night, said Zhou Jianliang, chief engineer with the center.

Experts from the center estimated that the night is expected to appear on Dec. 26 and will last for about 15 days, during which the rover will “go to sleep” without any energy supply.

The trial will help the rover continue explorations after the night, Zhou added.

Yutu has had to deal with direct solar radiation raising the temperature to over 100 degrees centigrade on its sunny side, while its shaded side simultaneously fell below zero.

Chang’e-3 soft-landed on the moon’s Sinus Iridum, or the Bay of Rainbows, on Dec. 14, establishing China as the third country in the world capable of carrying out such a rover mission after the United States and former Soviet Union.

Yutu will survey the moon’s geological structure and surface substances and look for natural resources for three months, while the lander will conduct in-situ exploration at the landing site for one year.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NEW POST   updated on December 24, 2013

 

 

China’s moon rover 

“sleeps” 

through lunar night

 

By Tian Ye

 

The moon rover and lander of China’s Chang’e 3 lunar probe mission will “sleep” during the lunar night, enduring extreme low temperatures on the lunar surface.

According to Wu Fenglei of the Beijing Aerospace Control Center, the lander will “go to sleep” at about 7 a.m. on Christmas Day and the moon rover, Jade Rabbit, will fall asleep at about 1 a.m. on Boxing Day.

The forthcoming lunar night, expected to begin on December 26, will last for about two weeks, experts with the center estimated. During their “sleep”, both lander and rover will have to tolerate minus 180 degrees Celsius. Scientists tested the lander early Tuesday of December 24 to ensure it can stand the temperature drop.

Both lander and rover are stable, said Wu, adding they have completed a series of scientific tasks in the past two days.

Chang’e-3 soft-landed on the moon’s Sinus Iridum, or the Bay of Rainbows, on December 14, establishing China as the third country to carry out such a mission after the United States and Soviet Union.

Yutu, the rover, will survey the moon’s geological structure and surface substances and look for natural resources for three months, while the lander will conduct in-situ exploration at the landing site for one year.

 

 

 

 

 

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